Geostatistical analysis of fall armyworm damage and edaphoclimatic conditions of a mosaic of agroecosystems predominated by push-pull systems
|Ouorou Ganni Mariel Guera1, 2*, Federico Castrejón-Ayala1, Norma Robledo1, Alfredo Jiménez-Pérez1, Van-Huong Le3, Martín Alberto Díaz-Viera4, and José Antônio Aleixo da Silva5|
|Some agroecological pest management systems manipulate insect behavior. The push-pull systems are the most functional implemented, reducing the insect-pest density and modifying its distribution. The present work analyzed the spatial distribution of incidence and severity of fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and soil moisture and temperature in maize (Zea mays L.) crops of a mosaic of agroecosystems predominated by push-pull systems established in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico. Univariate and multivariate spatial estimates were performed by geostatistical analysis applying ordinary kriging and cokriging, respectively. The results indicated that FAW incidence and severity presented an aggregated spatial distribution and soil moisture and temperature, a more continuous distribution. The estimated spatial distributions in the third week indicated that FAW incidence in push-pull systems varied between 10% and 40%, and in maize monocultures, between 35% and 90%. Fall armyworm damage severity ranged between 20% and 70% in monocultures and between 1% and 25% in the push-pull systems.|
|Keywords: Cokriging, fall armyworm incidence and severity, kriging, soil temperature and moisture, Spodoptera frugiperda.|
|1Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Yaupetec, Morelos, México.|
2Universidad Politécnica del Estado de Morelos (UPEMOR), Morelos, México.
3University of Wyoming (UW), Laramie, Wyoming, USA.
4Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Instituto Mexicano de Petróleo (IMP), México.
5Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Departamento de Ciência Florestal, Recife, Brasil.
*Corresponding author (email@example.com).